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巴黎公約簡介(雙語)
知識產權網 新聞來源:巴黎公約 發布時間:2017/4/28 16:35:38

1 、The Summary of theParis Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
保護工業產權的巴黎公約簡介
 
The ParisConvention applies to industrial property in the widest sense, includingpatents, trademarks, industrial designs, utility models (a kind of"small-scale patent" provided for by the laws of some countries),service marks, trade names (designations under which an industrial orcommercial activity is carried out), geographical indications (indications ofsource and appellations of origin) and the repression of unfair competition.
巴黎公約適用于最廣泛意義的工業產權保護,包括專利、商標、工業設計、實用新型(一些國家法律規定的一種小型專利),服務標志、商號(根據從事的工業或商業活動而分配),地理標志(產地或來源標志)以及對不公平競爭的限制。
 
2、The organization andthe background of the Convention
機構組織及巴黎公約歷史背景
The Paris Union,established by the Convention, has an Assembly and an Executive Committee.Every State that is a member of the Union and has adhered to at least theadministrative and final provisions of the Stockholm Act (1967) is a member ofthe Assembly. The members of the Executive Committee are elected from among themembers of the Union, except for Switzerland, which is a member ex officio. Theestablishment of the biennial program and budget of the WIPO Secretariat – asfar as the Paris Union is concerned – is the task of its Assembly.
根據巴黎公約成立的巴黎聯合會,擁有成員委員會和行政行政委員會。每個成員國是該聯合會的會員,并至少遵守1967年斯德哥爾摩法案關于行政管理和最終條款的規定,將成為成員委員會會員。除了瑞士作為原始創始國外,其他行政執行委員會的成員從聯合會成員中選舉產生。成員委員會的任務是建立巴黎聯合會有關的WTPO秘書處每兩年一次的計劃和預算
The ParisConvention, concluded in 1883, was revised at Brussels in 1900, at Washingtonin 1911, at The Hague in 1925, at London in 1934, at Lisbon in 1958 and atStockholm in 1967, and was amended in 1979.
巴黎公約定于1883年,并于1900年在布魯塞爾,1911年華盛頓,1925年海牙,1934年倫敦,1958年黎巴嫩和1967年斯德哥爾摩修訂,并最終于1979年修訂于巴黎。
The Conventionis open to all States. Instruments of ratification or accession must bedeposited with the Director General of WIPO.
巴黎公約向所有國家開放。批準或加入文書需存放到世界知識產權組織總干事處。
 
3 、The substantive provisions and the contents of the Convention
巴黎公約的實質條款及內容
The substantiveprovisions of the Convention fall into three main categories: nationaltreatment, right of priority, common rules.
巴黎公約的實質條款主要分為三類:國民待遇、優先權、普通規則。
(1)    Underthe provisions on national treatment, the Convention provides that, as regardsthe protection of industrial property, each Contracting State must grant thesame protection to nationals of other Contracting States that it grants to itsown nationals. Nationals of non-Contracting States are also entitled tonational treatment under the Convention if they are domiciled or have a realand effective industrial or commercial establishment in a Contracting State.
根據國民待遇規定,巴黎公約規定為保護工業產權,每個巴黎公約國應給予其他巴黎公約方國民與其本國國民同等保護的權利。非巴黎公約國公民根據本巴黎公約也被授予國民待遇,即當他們在巴黎公約國居住或者有真實并有效的工業或商業經營在巴黎公約國。
(2)    TheConvention provides for the right of priority in the case of patents (and utilitymodels where they exist), marks and industrial designs. This right means that,on the basis of a regular first application filed in one of the ContractingStates, the applicant may, within a certain period of time (12 months forpatents and utility models; 6 months for industrial designs and marks), applyfor protection in any of the other Contracting States. These subsequentapplications will be regarded as if they had been filed on the same day as thefirst application. In other words, they will have priority (hence theexpression "right of priority") over applications filed by othersduring the said period of time for the same invention, utility model, mark orindustrial design. Moreover, these subsequent applications, being based on the firstapplication, will not be affected by any event that takes place in theinterval, such as the publication of an invention or the sale of articlesbearing a mark or incorporating an industrial design. One of the greatpractical advantages of this provision is that applicants seeking protection inseveral countries are not required to present all of their applications at thesame time but have 6 or 12 months to decide in which countries they wish toseek protection, and to organize with due care the steps necessary for securingprotection.
巴黎公約規定了在專利(或實用新型)、商標和工業設計的優先權。該權利意味著,通常一旦在任何一個巴黎公約國申請,申請人可以在12個月內向其他任何一個巴黎公約國申請專利或實用新型,6個月內申請工業設計或商標。這些后續提出的申請視為與他們首次申請的日期為同一天。換句話說,申請人將對申請領域的申請在上述日期內就同一發明、實用新型、商標和工業設計享有優先權。另外,這些后續的申請,建立在首次申請的基礎上,將不受公開發明或者銷售帶有商標的產品或者工業新型等任何事件的影響。
該規定中最大的優勢之一在于申請人在幾個國家申請保護不要求在同一時間出示他們的所有申請,而且有6個或12個月決定他們將在哪個國家申請保護,并審慎采取獲得保護的必要步驟。
(3)    TheConvention lays down a few common rules that all Contracting States mustfollow. The most important are:
巴黎公約確立了幾個所有成員國必須遵守的通用的規則。幾個重要的規則如下:
(a)    Patents.Patents granted in different Contracting States for the same invention areindependent of each other: the granting of a patent in one Contracting Statedoes not oblige other Contracting States to grant a patent; a patent cannot berefused, annulled or terminated in any Contracting State on the ground that ithas been refused or annulled or has terminated in any other Contracting State.
專利:同一專利在不同成員國授予的,他們之間相互獨立。在一個成員國授予的專利不能要求其他成員國也授予專利;成員國不能以該專利在其他成員國被拒絕、撤銷或者終止而同樣拒絕、撤銷、終止該專利。
 The inventor has the right to be named as suchin the patent.
發明者在專利上有權被命名。
The grant of apatent may not be refused, and a patent may not be invalidated, on the groundthat the sale of the patented product, or of a product obtained by means of thepatented process, is subject to restrictions or limitations resulting from thedomestic law.
授予的專利不能以銷售的該專利產品或者依據專利程序獲得的產品依據國內法律限制或者影響而被拒絕或認定無效。
Each ContractingState that takes legislative measures providing for the grant of compulsorylicenses to prevent the abuses which might result from the exclusive rightsconferred by a patent may do so only under certain conditions. A compulsorylicense (a license not granted by the owner of the patent but by a publicauthority of the State concerned), based on failure to work or insufficientworking of the patented invention, may only be granted pursuant to a requestfiled after three years from the grant of the patent or four years from thefiling date of the patent application, and it must be refused if the patenteegives legitimate reasons to justify this inaction. Furthermore, forfeiture of apatent may not be provided for, except in cases where the grant of a compulsorylicense would not have been sufficient to prevent the abuse. In the lattercase, proceedings for forfeiture of a patent may be instituted, but only afterthe expiration of two years from the grant of the first compulsory license.
每個成員國采取法律措施規定關于強制授權以防止濫用權力。該種排他權力在授予專利的時候只有在某些特定條件下可能會導致濫用權力。強制授權(該授權不是來自于專利權利人而是有關國家的政府權力),專利無效或者不能足夠有效,依據某一要求的領域在專利授予三年后或在填表申請日四年后方可授權,并且一旦專利獲得者提出合法理由對此要求審查,該專利將被拒絕。另外,不得規定對專利進行沒收,除非強制授權不能充分阻止權利濫用。一旦權利被濫用,沒收專利的程序將啟動,但只能在首次強制授權后2年期限屆滿之后。
(b)   Marks.The Paris Convention does not regulate the conditions for the filing andregistration of marks which are determined in each Contracting State by domesticlaw. Consequently, no application for the registration of a mark filed by anational of a Contracting State may be refused, nor may a registration beinvalidated, on the ground that filing, registration or renewal has not beeneffected in the country of origin. The registration of a mark obtained in oneContracting State is independent of its possible registration in any othercountry, including the country of origin; consequently, the lapse or annulmentof the registration of a mark in one Contracting State will not affect thevalidity of the registration in other Contracting States.
商標。巴黎公約沒有規定申請和注冊商標的條件,而是由每個成員國依據國內法律自行決定。因此,成員國國民提出的商標的申請注冊不能以該申請、注冊或者續期沒有在原始國生效而被拒絕或者注冊被認定無效。在某一成員國獲得的商標注冊盡可能與在其他國家注冊相互獨立,包括原始國。因此商標在某一成員國注冊的到期或者注銷,將不會影響在其他成員國的注冊效力。
Where a mark hasbeen duly registered in the country of origin, it must, on request, be acceptedfor filing and protected in its original form in the other Contracting States.Nevertheless, registration may be refused in well-defined cases, such as wherethe mark would infringe the acquired rights of third parties; where it isdevoid of distinctive character; where it is contrary to morality or publicorder; or where it is of such a nature as to be liable to deceive the public.
一旦商標在原始國被依法注冊,那么一旦在其他成員國申請以原始國的形式申請和保護將被接受。
If, in anyContracting State, the use of a registered mark is compulsory, the registrationcannot be canceled for non-use until after a reasonable period, and then onlyif the owner cannot justify this inaction.
如果在任何國家,注冊商標的使用是強制的,只有經過適當的期間,而且只有有關人員不能證明其不使用有正當理由,才可以取消注冊。
Each ContractingState must refuse registration and prohibit the use of marks that constitute areproduction, imitation or translation, liable to create confusion, of a markused for identical and similar goods and considered by the competent authorityof that State to be well known in that State and to already belong to a personentitled to the benefits of the Convention.
成員國應拒絕該類商標的注冊或使用:該商標構成與已經被使用于辨識高或相似的商品上并被監管當局認定在該國具有很高知名度且依據巴黎公約該利益已被授予他人的商標,進行復制、模仿或者改變,有可能造成混淆的。
Each ContractingState must likewise refuse registration and prohibit the use of marks thatconsist of or contain, without authorization, armorial bearings, State emblemsand official signs and hallmarks of Contracting States, provided they have beencommunicated through the International Bureau of WIPO. The same provisionsapply to armorial bearings, flags, other emblems, abbreviations and names ofcertain intergovernmental organizations.
每個成員國同樣對于含有如下內容的商標不予注冊并禁止使用:未經授權使用含有徽章、國徽、政府標志以及成員國標志,但該成員國已經與國際知識產權局交流通過除外。該規定同樣適用于涉及某些國際組織盾徽、旗幟、其他徽章、縮寫或者名稱。
Collective marksmust be granted protection.集合商標應被授予保護
(c)    IndustrialDesigns. Industrial designs must be protected in each Contracting State, andprotection may not be forfeited on the ground that articles incorporating thedesign are not manufactured in that State.
工業設計。工業設計應在每個成員國授予保護,該保護不能因該物品的公司不在該成員國生產而喪失。
(d)   TradeNames. Protection must be granted to trade names in each Contracting Statewithout there being an obligation to file or register the names.
商號。商號必須被授權保護在每個成員國,但不以該成員國有義務申請或者注冊該商號為條件。
(e)    Indicationsof Source. Measures must be taken by each Contracting State against direct orindirect use of a false indication of the source of goods or the identity oftheir producer, manufacturer or trader.
產地標志。成員國必須采取措施禁止直接或間接使用錯誤的商品產地的指引或生產者、制造者或貿易者的身份。
(f)    Unfaircompetition. Each Contracting State must provide for effective protection againstunfair competition.
不公平競爭。每個成員國應針對不公平競爭提供有效保護措施。

 

 

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